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Chair of Architecture and Urban Design
Asst. Prof. Dr. Alex Lehnerer
Grand Urban Rules

Design Rules and Design With Rules!

Cities as cultural products are neither ‘built’ nor ‘planned,’ at best they are guided and steered in a certain direction. Therefore, rules and regulations are one of the few tools that are actually suitable to guide future development within such collective and complex urban settings.

We strongly believe that the field of (urban) design should not simply adhere to these standards as some neutrally existing context but should actively engage in discussing them in order to make them subject to design as well. read more

Office for urban regulation

Sky Factor


Provided that 0.2% of the total visual field is visible through the window as sky from a certain position within a room, then the room is adequately lit from this position by natural light.

  • Measuring the sky from inside through the window.
  • Grumble line—before and after a new building is erected in front of the window.

Rule category

Rights of Light: enough light and air for everybody
The Kind of Rule
Rule that works as reference, ratio, or dependency.
Rule that is NOT related to any preconceived zone or area.
Rule that stipulates a lower limit.
Rule that influences programmatic and functional issues.
Rule with direct impact on architectural or urban form.
Rule that has a strong influence on urban density and its distribution.
Plot/Block Rule: Rule that relates to the scale of a city block or plot.